The book of Samuel was written around BC 930 by an unknown writer. However, “the books of 1 and 2 Samuel were originally one book . . . on a single scroll . . . and did not appear until the fifteenth century and became common with the first printed editions of the Hebrew Bible in the sixteenth century”1 Some scholars believe the prophet Nathan was the person who penned this unique narrative literature. Bruce Birch notes that, “Leonard Rost . . . identified [the] narrative written by a single author who lived close to the time of events; further, “Martin Noth proposed . . . [2 Samuel] constituted a single great history work influenced by deuteronomic theological perspective and written during the time of the Babylonian exile; most regard . . . 2 Samuel to be the work of the deuteronomistic historian.”2 David fulfilled the Deuteronomy regulations related to the accumulation of horses, chariots, justice for the people he ruled over, and as a faithful servant of the Lord God. Furthermore, David is thought of as the new Joshua and Caleb in the books of Samuel because of his faithfulness, and his succession in slaying the Philistine giant name Goliath.3 On the other hand, David disobeyed instructions concerning royal harems.4 He built a household full of women who were his wives. This was a big mistake. Additionally, this book is named after Israel’s greatest judge and prophet (Samuel). The people choose Saul as their king. On the contrary, David was God chosen king. It must be noted that Samuel embrocated David into kingship through God’s choosing. God wanted David to lead His people because David was “a man after [God’s] own heart.”5 This decision was made known after King Saul’s prior faults. Due to the fact that God chose David over Saul, Saul felt resentment and sought to kill David for over twenty years. In contrast, there were many times when David could have eliminated Saul; nevertheless, he did not because David knew that Saul was in power due to the authority of God’s anointing. Episodes like this made David Israel greatest king. As a matter of fact, it gets even better—David is the ancestor of Jesus Christ/Covenant. David is also listed in the book of Hebrews Hall of Fame section. David was born halfway between the times of Abraham and Jesus. David completed the conquest into the promise land (Canaan) which was initiated by Joshua. Some scholars believe, “the purpose of depicting David in this part of Scripture as the idea leader of an imperfect kingdom, and to foreshadow Christ, who will be the idea leader of a new and perfect kingdom.”6 Andrew Hill and John Walton enlarge on some of the preceding ideology by quoting, “The major purpose [of 2 Samuel] is theological . . . [it] gives us the history of the establishment of the Davidic covenant (2 Sam. 7) . . . established by God . . . God chooses dynasties . . . a monarchy was in God’s plan for Israel.”7 David was placed on the throne by God and God providence always prevails. David obtained his power through lawful means. Scholar Merrill Tenney expounds on the life of David like this:
David was born in 1040 BC, [eighth and] youngest son of Jesse of Bethlehem . . . Saul four attempts on David’s life . . . [David] declared king over Judah . . . [then] all Israel acclaimed David king in 1003 BC. [It must be noted that David brought order to Israel] . . . some of David’s greatest achievements lie in the literary sphere of the 150 canonical psalms [sic], 73 possess titles asserting Davidic authorship.8
Additionally, Bruce Birch make a prolific statement pertaining to the book of Samuel, he believes, “The book of Samuel open with a loose federation of tribal groups gripped by crisis, both external and internal, that threatens the very existence of Israel, and they end on the eve of an nation emergent hereditary monarchy that will preside over an established nation state.”9 Other scholars affirm the same by writing, “the book of 1 and 2 Samuel describe Israel’s transition from loosely organized tribal league under God (a theocracy) to centralized leadership under a king who answered to God (a monarchy).”10 David brought order under his monarchy to Israel, and oversaw it as an well-known national-state. As mentioned above, many scholars consider David the greatest king outside of Jesus sovereignty. The writer of 2 Samuel knows and understand that it is the working of God’s providence that ultimately prevails in Israel. No matter the turmoil in such a remote place like Israel, God utilizes his power as He usually does to bring about His purpose. In this particular turn of events, a multitude of human beings help bring about God’s plan. The main characters in 2 Samuel, Chapter 11 are: God, King David, Bathsheba, Uriah, Joab, and the Prophet Nathan. Many scholars believe this to be an opulent cast of characters. After God, most of the focus is on King David. David was a wimpy kid who was raised up from many other capable leaders that could have held the scepter and ruled justly. However, David was God chosen man. Granted, David was not perfect and he had flaws (2 Sam. 11). Nevertheless, David was a man who sought after the Lord; furthermore, he was a man who confessed his sins and ask forgiveness for his mishaps (2 Sam. 12). According to the Scriptures, the Lord continued to be with him. The previous point is geared by a continuous theological thesis—the Lord was with David. As the narrative progress in 2 Sam. 11-12:25, it builds into a heightened climatic scene. The narrative in 2 Samuel 11-12:25 is meshed in between the battle and conquering of the Ammonites at Rabbah. The city of Rabbah is located forty miles east of Jerusalem. This battle transpired when the Ammonite king died. David sent men to pay respect to the new king. The new king men convinced him that David sent his people to spy on the city with the idea of demolishing it. The new king men (Ammonites) cut David’s men hair and stripped them of their clothes. Then, they hired an army of Aramean’s to fight against David and all of Israel. David saw this as an ultimate sign of disrespect. David and all of Israel came in and wiped out the Ammonites.
Changing gears, some scholars like Morton Wharton paints Bathsheba as the villain in this narrative by saying “She doubtless exposed herself that the king might be tempted”; “[Then] in a 1985 film, King David, Bathsheba reveals to a shocked David that Uriah is an abusive husband.”11 These arguments do not align with Scripture perspective of Bathsheba because the Lord declared, “what David had done to be [was] evil.”12 There is no mention in Scripture of anything Bathsheba did wrong. Furthermore, while both Bathsheba and Uriah was where they were supposed to be in God’s plan, King David was not. The record reflects that King David was idle during the time he committed sin with Bathsheba and against Uriah.13 Ultimately, the final scene in this part of Scripture is: human nature is sinful, but through the Lord Jesus Christ acts on Calvary’s Cross, we all have been forgiven of our sins. Simply through the process of admission and ask of forgiveness for our sins.